Oldeman LR. Global extent of soil degradation. In: Bi-Annual Report 1991–1992/ISRIC; 1992. p. 16–36.
Oldeman LR, Hakkeling RTA, Sombroek WG, World map of the status of human-induced soil degradation: an explanatory note; 2017. http://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/19660/ExplanNote_1.pdf?sequence=1. Accessed 20 Oct 2018.
Zika M, Erb KH. The global loss of net primary production resulting from human-induced soil degradation in drylands. Ecol Econ. 2009;69(2):310–8.
Hafner S, et al. Effect of grazing on carbon stocks and assimilate partitioning in a Tibetan montane pasture revealed by 13CO2 pulse labeling. Glob Change Biol. 2012;18(2):528–38.
Holt J. Grazing pressure and soil carbon, microbial biomass and enzyme activities in semi-arid northeastern Australia. Appl Soil Ecol. 1997;5(2):143–9.
Wu X, et al. Restoration of ecosystem carbon and nitrogen storage and microbial biomass after grazing exclusion in semi-arid grasslands of Inner Mongolia. Ecol Eng. 2014;73:395–403.
Mussa M, Ebro A, Nigatu L. Soil organic carbon and total nitrogen stock response to traditional enclosure management in eastern Ethiopia. J Soil Sci Environ Manag. 2017;8(2):37–43.
Mekuria W, et al. Restoration of ecosystem carbon stocks following exclosure establishment in communal grazing lands in Tigray, Ethiopia. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 2011;75:246–56.
Lal R. Carbon sequestration in dryland ecosystems. Environ Manage. 2004;33:528–44.
Dou X, et al. Soil organic carbon dynamics under long-term fertilization in a black soil of China: evidence from stable C isotopes. Sci Rep. 2016;6:21488.
Lal R. Societal value of soil carbon. J Soil Water Conserv. 2014;69:188a–92a.
Li XL, et al. Rangeland degradation and the Qinghai-Tibet plateau: implications for rehabilitation. Land Degrad Dev. 2013;24:72–80.
Wang S, et al. Management and land use change effects on soil carbon in northern China’s grasslands: a synthesis. Agr Ecosyst Environ. 2011;142(3):329–40.
Savadogo P, Sawadogo L, Tiveau D. Effects of grazing intensity and prescribed fire on soil physical and hydrological properties and pasture yield in the savanna woodlands of Burkina Faso. Agr Ecosyst Environ. 2007;118:80–92.
Chazdon RL. Beyond deforestation: restoring forests and ecosystem services on degraded lands. Science. 2008;320(5882):1458–60.
Gil-Sotres F, et al. Different approaches to evaluating soil quality using biochemical properties. Soil Biol Biochem. 2005;37:877–87.
Giller KE, et al. Agricultural intensification, soil biodiversity and agroecosystem function. Appl Soil Ecol. 1997;6(1):3–16.
Rounsevell M, Evans S, Bullock P. Climate change and agricultural soils: impacts and adaptation. Clim Change. 1999;43(4):683–709.
Mureithi SM, et al. Impact of enclosure management on soil properties and microbial biomass in a restored semi-arid rangeland, Kenya. J Arid Land. 2014;6(5):561–70.
Weil RR, et al. Estimating active carbon for soil quality assessment: a simplified method for laboratory and field use. Am J Altern Agric. 2003;18:3–17.
Weil RR, Magdoff F. Significance of soil organic matter to soil quality and health. In: Magdoff F, Weil RR, editors. Soil organic matter in sustainable agriculture. Boca Raton: CRC Press; 2004.
Makokha W, et al. We work together: land rehabilitation and household dynamics in Chepareria Division, west Pokot District, Kenya. RELMA Technical Report No. 22. Nairobi Kenya: RELMA/SIDA. ISBN 9966-896-42-2. p. 1999(81).
Mekuria W, et al. Effectiveness of exclosures to restore degraded soils as a result of overgrazing in Tigray, Ethiopia. J Arid Environ. 2007;69(2):270–84.
Mwilawa A, Komwihangilo D, Kusekwa M. Conservation of forage resources for increasing livestock production in traditional forage reserves in Tanzania. Afr J Ecol. 2008;46(s1):85–9.
Vi-Agroforestry, West Pokot Progressive Survey Report 2007. In: O. K. O. Compiled by M&E Team: Lonah Mukoya, Joseph Mwaniki, Wairimu Njuguna, Editors. Vi-Agroforestry Project, Kitale; 2007.
Wairore JN, et al. Characterization of enclosure management regimes and factors influencing their choice among agropastoralists in North-Western Kenya Pastoralism: research. Policy Pract. 2015;5(1):14.
Silveira ML, et al. Short-term effects of grazing intensity and nitrogen fertilization on soil organic carbon pools under perennial grass pastures in the southeastern USA. Soil Biol Biochem. 2013;58:42–9.
Pringle M, et al. The effect of pasture utilization rate on stocks of soil organic carbon and total nitrogen in a semi-arid tropical grassland. Agr Ecosyst Environ. 2014;195:83–90.
Stavi I, et al. No adverse effect of moderate stubble grazing on soil quality and organic carbon pool in dryland wheat agro-ecosystems. Agron Sustain Dev. 2015;35(3):1117–25.
Bruun TB, et al. Organic carbon dynamics in different soil types after conversion of forest to agriculture. Land Degrad Dev. 2015;26(3):272–83.
Castellano MJ, et al. Integrating plant litter quality, soil organic matter stabilization, and the carbon saturation concept. Glob Change Biol. 2015;21(9):3200–9.
Yé L, et al. Contrasted effects of annual and perennial grasses on soil chemical and biological characteristics of a grazed Sudanian savanna. Appl Soil Ecol. 2017;113:155–65.
Yu P, et al. Soil organic carbon fractions are affected by different land uses in an agro-pastoral transitional zone in Northeastern China. Ecol Ind. 2017;73:331–7.
County Government of West Pokot. First County Integrated Development Plan 2013–2017; 2013. http://www.westpokot.go.ke/. Accessed 2 Dec 2017.
Hiederer R, Köchy M. Global soil organic carbon estimates and the harmonized world soil database. EUR. 2011;79:25225.
Oduor CO. Managing soil organic carbon and greenhouse gas emissions through the establishment of pasture enclosures in West Pokot County, Kenya. In: Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology (LARMAT). Thesis. Nairobi: University of Nairobi; 2018. p. 1–100.
Reynolds S. The gravimetric method of soil moisture determination Part IA study of equipment, and methodological problems. J Hydrol. 1970;11(3):258–73.
Blake GR. Physical and mineralogical properties, including statistics of measurement and sampling. In: Black CA, editor. Methods of soil analysis, Part 1, ASA-SSSA, vol. 9. Agronomy Monograph; 1965. pp. 374–90.
Bouyoucos GJ. Hydrometer method improved for making particle size analyses of soils. Agron J. 1962;54(5):464–5.
Nelson DW, Sommers LE. Total carbon, organic carbon and organic matter. In: Page AL, Miller RH, Keeney DR, editors. Methods of soil analysis. Part 2 Chemical and microbiological properties; 1982. pp. 539–79.
Kjeldahl J. A new method for the determination of nitrogen in organic matter. Z Anal Chem. 1883;22(1):366–82.
Chapman HD. Cation exchange capacity. In: Black CA, editor. Methods of soil analysis. Madison: American Society of Agronomy; 1965. pp. 891–901.
Cambardella C, Elliott E. Particulate soil organic-matter changes across a grassland cultivation sequence. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 1992;56(3):777–83.
Vance ED, Brookes PC, Jenkinson DS. An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biol Biochem. 1987;19(6):703–7.
Nunan N, Morgan M, Herlihy M. Ultraviolet absorbance (280 nm) of compounds released from soil during chloroform fumigation as an estimate of the microbial biomass. Soil Biol Biochem. 1998;30(12):1599–603.
Beck T, et al. An inter-laboratory comparison of ten different ways of measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biol Biochem. 1997;29(7):1023–32.
Brookes PC, et al. Chloroform fumigation and the release of soil nitrogen: a rapid direct extraction method to measure microbial biomass nitrogen in soil. Soil Biol Biochem. 1985;17:837–42.
VSN International. GenStat for windows. 15th ed. Hemel Hempstead: VSN International; 2012.
SPSS, I. IBM SPSS statistics for Windows, version 20.0. New York: IBM Corp; 2011.
McKenzie NJ, et al. Australian soils and landscapes: an illustrated compendium. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO Publishing; 2004.
USDA. Rangeland soil quality—compaction. Soil Quality Institute, Grazing Lands Technology Institute, and National Soil Survey Center, Natural Resources Conservation Service. 2001. https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/nrcs142p2_051912.pdf.
Kinyua D, et al. Short-term and long-term effects of soil ripping, seeding, and fertilization on the restoration of a tropical rangeland. Restor Ecol. 2010;18(s1):226–33.
Yong-Zhong S, et al. Influences of continuous grazing and livestock exclusion on soil properties in a degraded sandy grassland, Inner Mongolia, northern China. CATENA. 2005;59(3):267–78.
Castellano M, Valone T. Livestock, soil compaction and water infiltration rate: evaluating a potential desertification recovery mechanism. J Arid Environ. 2007;71(1):97–108.
Hudson BD. Soil organic matter and available water capacity. J Soil Water Conserv. 1994;49(2):189–94.
Benbi DK, et al. Total and labile pools of soil organic carbon in cultivated and undisturbed soils in Northern India. Geoderma. 2015;237–238:149–58.
Jeddi K, Chaieb M. Changes in soil properties and vegetation following livestock grazing exclusion in degraded arid environments of South Tunisia. FloraMorphol Distrib Funct Ecol Plants. 2010;205(3):184–9.
Mekuria W, Aynekulu E. Exclosure land management for restoration of the soils in degraded communal grazing lands in northern Ethiopia. Land Degrad Dev. 2011;24:528–38.
Svanlund S. Carbon sequestration in the pastoral area of Chepareria, western Kenya - a comparison between open-grazing, fenced pastures and maize cultivations. Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Faculty of Forest Sciences; 2014. pp. 1–38. http://www.triplel.se/publications/msc-thesis/2-carbon-sequestration-in-the-pastoral-area-of-chepareria-western-kenya-msc-thesis-sara-svanlund-slu/file.html.
Ituika AG. Impact of enclosure management and age on topsoil organic carbon stocks in Chepareria, West Pokot County, Kenya. Ghent: Ghent University; 2016.
Roldan A, et al. Changes in soil enzyme activity, fertility, aggregation and C sequestration mediated by conservation tillage practices and water regime in a maize field. Appl Soil Ecol. 2005;30:11–20.
Conant RT, Six J, Paustian K. Land use effects on soil carbon fractions in the southeastern United States. I. Management-intensive versus extensive grazing. Biol Fertil Soils. 2003;38(6):386–92.
Plaza-Bonilla D, Álvaro-Fuentes J, Cantero-Martínez C. Identifying soil organic carbon fractions sensitive to agricultural management practices. Soil Tillage Res. 2014;139:19–22.
Burke IC, Lauenroth WK, Coffin DP. Soil organic matter recovery in semiarid grasslands: implications for the conservation reserve program. Ecol Appl. 1995;5(3):793–801.
Goebel M-O, Woche SK, Bachmann J. Do soil aggregates really protect encapsulated organic matter against microbial decomposition? Biologia. 2009;64(3):443–8.
Yost JL, et al. Impact of restoration and management on aggregation and organic carbon accumulation in urban grasslands. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 2016;80(4):992–1002.
Six J, et al. Aggregation and soil organic matter accumulation in cultivated and native grassland soils. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 1998;62(5):1367–77.
Gale W, Cambardella C, Bailey T. Root-derived carbon and the formation and stabilization of aggregates. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 2000;64(1):201–7.
Chan K. Consequences of changes in particulate organic carbon in vertisols under pasture and cropping. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 1997;61(5):1376–82.
Gill R, et al. Relationship between root biomass and soil organic matter pools in the shortgrass steppe of eastern Colorado. Ecosystems. 1999;2(3):226.
Kaye J, Barrett J, Burke I. Stable nitrogen and carbon pools in grassland soils of variable texture and carbon content. Ecosystems. 2002;5(5):461–71.
Liu N, et al. Impact of grazing on soil carbon and microbial biomass in typical steppe and desert steppe of Inner Mongolia. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36434.
Weber B, et al. Natural recovery of biological soil crusts after disturbance, in biological soil crusts: an organizing principle in Drylands. Berlin: Springer; 2016. p. 479–98.
Buyanovsky G, Aslam M, Wagner G. Carbon turnover in soil physical fractions. Soil Sci Soc Am J. 1994;58(4):1167–73.
Schlesinger WH, Andrews JA. Soil respiration and the global carbon cycle. Biogeochemistry. 2000;48(1):7–20.