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Table 2 Parameter estimates of the performed reduced linear mixed-effect models for each functional trait ITVBI measure separately

From: Biotic and abiotic drivers of intraspecific trait variation within plant populations of three herbaceous plant species along a latitudinal gradient

Species Functional trait CV \({\text{R}}_{\text{M}}^{ 2} /{\text{R}}_{\text{C}}^{ 2}\) AIC/ΔAIC Climate Local abiotic Local biotic
Anemone nemorosa, (N = 37) Plant height 0.524/0.531 90.86/10.29 GDH 12.75*/− 5.73 Soil Nb 7.29*/0.42 Species richness 6.26*/− 0.31
GDH2 14.70*/6.25   Functional divergence 7.41*/− 0.41
   C-sign. 9.59**/0.46
Seed massb 0.202/0.202 105.18/12.22 Functional evennessc 4.43*/− 0.32
   C-sign. 4.86*/0.34
SLAa 0.442/0.442 92.45/3.49 MAP 4.57*/− 0.30 S-sign. 8.76**/0.43 Functional richness 3.09(*)/− 0.24
   Functional evennessc 7.77**/− 0.37
Leaf area < 0.001/0.243 102.28/2.18
Milium effusum, (N = 39) Plant height 0.236/0.434 105.37/16.17 GDH 5.31(*)/0.51
Seed mass 0.362/0.362 105.98/5.44 MAP 9.09*/− 0.56 Soil N 8.57**/− 1.53
GDH 12.70*/0.63 Soil N2 7.09*/1.44  
SLAa 0.803/0.803 58.93/18.68 MAP 41.50***/− 0.57 Soil N 14.68***/− 1.25 Functional divergence 5.26*/− 0.18
  Soil N2 19.30***/1.50  
  S-sign. 10.47**/− 0.27  
  S-sign.2 10.49**/0.25  
Leaf area < 0.001/0.272 112.11/8.82
Impatiens glandulifera, (N = 34) Plant height 0.445/0.445 88.86/4.33 MAP 14.66*/− 8.85 S-sign. 9.18**/− 0.48 Functional evenness 5.38*/0.38
MAP2 15.54*/9.31   
GDH 5.48*/0.50   
Seed massb 0.110/0.110 99.41/6.43 Functional evenness 4.06(*)/0.34
Leaf areab 0.580/0.580 80.54/4.70 MAP 19.86*/− 6.70 S-sign. 6.39*/− 0.32 Functional divergence 3.49(*)/0.24
MAP2 21.78*/7.01   
  1. Marginal (\({\text{R}}_{\text{M}}^{ 2}\)), conditional R2 (\({\text{R}}_{\text{C}}^{ 2}\)), AIC of the best model and ΔAIC for the full (initial) model given for each final model. Test statistic (F) and P-value (before slash) and beta-coefficient (after slash) given for each retained predictor after model reduction. All models based on coefficient of variation (CV)
  2. C-sign. mean abundance weighted functional competition signature, GDH growing degree hours, MAP mean annual precipitation, S-sign. mean abundance weighted functional stress signature, SLA specific leaf area, soil N soil nitrogen concentration
  3. (*) 0.10 ≥ P-value > 0.05; * 0.05 ≥ P-value > 0.01; ** 0.01 ≥ P-value > 0.001; *** 0.001 ≥ P-value
  4. aSquare root transformation, b logarithm transformation, c squared transformation