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Table 1 The OPAL national citizen science surveys

From: Surveying the citizen science landscape: an exploration of the design, delivery and impact of citizen science through the lens of the Open Air Laboratories (OPAL) programme

Survey name Launch date Aim Approach Output examples
OPAL Soil and Earthworm Survey 2009 Which species of earthworm are found in which soil and habitat types 1. Assessment of site characteristics
2. Assessment of soil properties
3. Earthworm ID
Hypothesis led and policy links e.g. [71]
OPAL Air Survey 2009 Bio-indicators assessing local pollution and distribution of lichens and Tar spot on Sycamore 1. Assessment of site characteristics
2. Assessment of tree characteristics
3. Identification of indicator lichens/fungus
Hypothesis led e.g. [56]
OPAL Water Survey 2010 Water quality of ponds 1. Assessment of site characteristics
2. Assessment of water clarity
3. pH test
4. Identification of indicator invertebrates
Hypothesis led e.g. [59]
OPAL Biodiversity Survey 2010 Condition of hedges 1. Assessment of site and hedge characteristics
2. Assessment of food resources
3. Identification of invertebrates
4. Tracking presence of other species
Hypothesis led: e.g. [70]
OPAL Climate Survey 2011 Human activities and climate 1. Observations of aircraft contrails
2. Measurement of wind speed and direction
3. Thermal comfort
Validation e.g. [57]
OPAL Bugs Count Survey 2011 Impact of a changing environment on urban and rural areas 1. Assessment of site characteristics
2. Assessment of microhabitats
3. Identification of invertebrates
Distribution monitoring e.g. [60]
OPAL Tree Health Survey 2013 Condition of trees and the pests and diseases that affect them 1. Assessment of site characteristics
2. ID of common pests and diseases
3. ID of threatening pests and diseases
Policy requirement: e.g. Defra strategy [58]