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Table 1 Factors affecting urban commonness of bird species in Oslo

From: Commonness and ecology, but not bigger brains, predict urban living in birds

Predictor df F P
Frequency in surrounding sites 1 152.61 <0.0001
Habitat type 3 18.50 <0.0001
Migration 1 1.98 0.16
Nest location 3 6.17 0.0008
Brain mass 1 0.17 0.68
Residual body mass 1 3.91 0.052
  1. Results from ANCOVA (summarized with a sequential sum of squares) showing associations between the frequency of occurrence of bird species (N = 90) in urban sites (N = 93) in Oslo and six predictor variables (frequency of occurrence in surrounding sites, habitat type, migration, nest site and relative brain mass [i.e. ln-transformed brain mass and residual body mass]). Significant values (P < 0.05) are in bold. See Additional file 1: Table S3 for full results from summarization of PGLS model.