Contact of adult ergatoid males towards pupae of all colony members in the ant Cardiocondyla obscurior . A) Ergatoid males did not preferentially contact any type of pupae when all pupae where white and thus several days prior to emergence. B) Dark, ready-to-eclose pupae of workers and ergatoid males were contacted less frequently than female sexual pupae, as well as winged male pupae. Bars represent mean values and whiskers the standard error of the mean. Small italic letters indicate significance groups for the dark pupae that showed significant overall differences.