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Table 2 Values of δ18O and δ13C of South American fossil Equus (Amerhippus).

From: Ancient feeding ecology inferred from stable isotopic evidence from fossil horses in South America over the past 3 Ma

Species name (age) Specimen Skeletal Altitude Locality (country) Latitude d13C (CO3) d18O (PO4) d18O (CO3)
  number tissue m.asl.    ‰ PDB ‰ V-SMOW ‰ V-SMOW
Equus sp. (Late Pl)* UCMP.38100 e 440 La Venta (Co) 3N -0.7   29.9
Equus sp. (Late Pl)* ING 184268 e 440 La Venta (Co) 3N -2.2   32.4
E. insulatus (Middle Pl) V.543 b 2500 Rio Chiche (Ec) 0 -5.7 13.6 23.5
E. insulatus (Middle Pl) V.542 t 2500 Rio Chiche (Ec) 0 -4.8 16.7 25.1
E. insulatus (Middle Pl) V.542 b 2500 Rio Chiche (Ec) 0 -3.2 15.7 24.6
E. insulatus (Middle Pl) V.544 b 2500 Rio Chiche (Ec) 0 -5.8 15.5 24.3
E. andium (26 to 19 ka BP) V.455 b 2778 Alangasí (Ec) 0 -5.5 15.0 24.4
E. andium (26 to 19 ka BP) V.430 b 2778 Alangasí (Ec) 0 -6.9 13.1 23.3
E. andium (26 to 19 ka BP) V.4014 b 2778 Alangasí (Ec) 0 -6.3 14.8 23.0
E. andium (26 to 19 ka BP) V.2495 b 2778 Quebrada Colorada (Ec) 2S -6.2 14.3 23.9
E. andium (26 to 19 ka BP) V.2417 b 2778 Quebrada Colorada (Ec) 2S -6.7 11.3 22.0
E. andium (26 to 19 ka BP) V.2163 b 2778 Quebrada Colorada (Ec) 2S -5.8 13.2 21.7
E. andium (20 to 12 ka BP) V.2161 b 2778 Punín (Ec) 2S -9.9 14.3 25.2
E. andium (20 to 12 ka BP) V.2152 b 2778 Punín (Ec) 2S -5.8 11.4 23.8
E. andium (20 to 12 ka BP) V.465 b 2778 Punín (Ec) 2S -6.1 14.9 23.6
E. santaelenae (12 to 8 ka BP) V.3037 d 0 La Carolina (Ec) 2S 9.2 22.1 34.9
E. santaelenae (12 to 8 ka BP) V.3037 e 0 La Carolina (Ec) 2S 1.5 22.1 32.6
E. santaelenae (12 to 8 ka BP) V.3037 b 0 La Carolina (Ec) 2S 6.1 21.8 33.5
E. santaelenae (12 to 8 ka BP) V.69 b 0 La Carolina (Ec) 2S -1.5 21.3 32.0
E. santaelenae (12 to 8 ka BP)* V-3037 e 0 La Carolina (Ec) 2S 1.8   32.7
E. santaelenae (12 to 8 ka BP)* V-68 e 0 La Carolina (Ec) 2S 5.4   33.6
E. santaelenae (26 to 19 ka BP)* F:AM 131869 e 0 Salinas Oil Field (Ec) 3S -0.8   32.6
E. santaelenae (26 to 19 ka BP)* F:AM 131868 e 0 Salinas Oil Field (Ec) 3S 3.0   32.5
E. santaelenae (26 to 19 ka BP)* ROM.3471C e 85 Talara Tar Pit (Peru) 5S 2.1   27.0
E. neogeus(26 to 19 ka BP)* uncatalogued e 200 Ourolandia (Br) 12S 1.1   29.5
E. neogeus(26 to 19 ka BP)* uncatalogued e 200 Ourolandia (Br) 12S 1.7   30.6
E. neogeus(28 to 10 ka BP)* UF.uncatalogued e 500 Naupua-3 (Bo) 21S 0.2   31.1
E. neogeus(28 to 10 ka BP)* UF.uncatalogued e 500 Naupua-1 (Bo) 21S 0.1   29.8
E. insulatus (44 to 21 ka BP) MACN 1501A b 1866 Tarija (Bo) 22S -5.8 17.4 25.6
E. insulatus (44 to 21 ka BP) MACN 1501B t 1866 Tarija (Bo) 22S -5.0 20.9 26.2
E. insulatus (44 to 21 ka BP) MACN 1509 t 1866 Tarija (Bo) 22S -8.3 20.0 28.3
E. insulatus (44 to 21 ka BP)* UF.uncatalogued e 1866 Tarija (Bo) 22S -4.8   25.2
E. insulatus (44 to 21 ka BP)* UF.uncatalogued e 1866 Tarija (Bo) 22S -2.9   24.4
E. insulatus (44 to 21 ka BP)* UF.uncatalogued e 1866 Tarija (Bo) 22S -2.6   25.8
E. insulatus (44 to 21 ka BP)* UF.uncatalogued e 1866 Tarija (Bo) 22S -2.3   26.4
E. insulatus (44 to 21 ka BP)* UF.90750 e 1866 Tarija (Bo) 22S -2.9   26.2
E. insulatus (44 to 21 ka BP)* UF.90895 e 1866 Tarija (Bo) 22S -3.5   23.5
E. insulatus (44 to 21 ka BP)* UF.90653 e 1866 Tarija (Bo) 22S -4.1   26.8
E. insulatus (44 to 21 ka BP)* UF.90764 e 1866 Tarija (Bo) 22S -4.1   24.2
E. insulatus (44 to 21 ka BP)* UF.91972 e 1866 Tarija (Bo) 22S -2.7   24.9
E. neogeus (28 to 10 ka BP) MCNAM-PV-83 e 200 La Banda (Ar) 28S -1.0   28.0
E. neogeus(Late Pl)* MLP.52.IX.29-91 e 10 Esperanza, Santa Fé (Ar) 32S -0.8   30.8
E. neogeus(Middle Pl)* AMNH.11154 e 10 Buenos Aires (Ar) 35S -10.7   30.8
E. neogeus(Middle Pl)* AMNH.11154 e 10 Buenos Aires (Ar) 35S -10.3   30.6
E. neogeus(Middle Pl)* MLP.91.VI.5-1 e 50 Magdalena (Ar) 35S -10.6   30.3
E. neogeus (28 to 10 ka BP) MACN 11636 b 10 Luján (Ar) 35S -11.7 21.2 30.4
E. neogeus (28 to 10 ka BP) MLP 6-402 b 10 Luján (Ar) 35S -11.2 20.1 30.6
E. neogeus (Middle Pl) MLP s/s t 10 Cant. Vial. Prov.(Ar) 35S -7.5 21.2 30.5
E. neogeus (Middle Pl) MLP s/s b 10 Cant. Vial. Prov.(Ar) 35S -11.5 20.8 32.1
E. neogeus (28 to 10 ka BP) MACN 6116 t 50 Arroyo Tapalqué (Ar) 38S -8.5 17.3 29.8
E. neogeus (28 to 10 ka BP) MACN 6116 b 50 Arroyo Tapalqué (Ar) 38S -7.9 21.2 29.7
E. neogeus (28 to 10 ka BP) MACN 9753 e 100 Río Quequén Salado (Ar) 38S -9.9 21.3 30.5
E. neogeus (28 to 10 ka BP) MACN 9753 d 100 Río Quequén Salado (Ar) 38S -10.1 21.3 30.3
E. neogeus (28 to 10 ka BP) MACN 9753 b 100 Río Quequén Salado (Ar) 38S -8.0 20.4 29.8
E. neogeus (28 to 10 ka BP) MACN 9751 b 100 Río Quequén Salado (Ar) 38S -7.8 21.0 30.9
E. neogeus (28 to 10 ka BP) MACN 9751 d 100 Río Quequén Salado (Ar) 38S -8.3 22.9 31.4
E. neogeus (28 to 10 ka BP) MLP 63-VI-1017 b 100 Río Quequén Salado (Ar) 38S -9.0 20.7 30.3
E. neogeus(12.8 to 11.5 ka BP)* MLP.52.X.5-3 e 100 Rio Quequén Salado (Ar) 38S -8.5   30.7
E. neogeus(12.8 to 11.5 ka BP)* MLP.52.X.5-3 e 100 Rio Quequén Salado (Ar) 38S -7.8   30.9
E. neogeus (28 to 10 ka BP) MLP s/s t 10 P. Hermengo (Ar) 38S -7.2 20.1 29.7
E. neogeus (28 to 10 ka BP) MLP 80-VIII-13-4 b 10 Paso Otero (Ar) 38S -10.7 20.1 29.8
E. neogeus (28 to 10 ka BP) MLP 80-VIII-13-63 b 10 Paso Otero (Ar) 38S -11.0 18.4 29.8
E. neogeus (28 to 10 ka BP) MLP.80.VIII.13-93 e 10 Paso Otero (Ar) 38S -10.2   31.3
E. neogeus (around 130 ka) MLP s/s t 10 Centinela Mar (Ar) 38S -10.0 19.1 30.3
E. neogeus (12.8 to 11.5 ka BP) MACN 14417 d 10 Zanjón Seco (Ar) 38S -11.4 20.3 29.3
E. neogeus (12.8 to 11.5 ka BP) MACN 14417 t 10 Zanjón Seco (Ar) 38S -10.4 21.1 29.1
E. neogeus (12.8 to 11.5 ka BP) MACN 14417 e 10 Zanjón Seco (Ar) 38S -10.5 21.2 30.7
E. neogeus (12.8 to 11.5 ka BP) MACN 14417 b 10 Zanjón Seco (Ar) 38S -10.9 19.9 29.7
  1. Samples with the same "specimen number" correspond to the same individuals. The bones correspond to the mandibular or maxillary remains that contained the teeth that were analyzed. Abbreviations as in Table 1. * taken from MacFadden et al. [25].