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Table 3 Linear regression parameters and lower thresholds for temperature-dependent development in C. maculatus

From: Stagewise resolution of temperature-dependent embryonic and postembryonic development in the cowpea seed beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (F.)

Developmental stage a ± SE, days−1a b ± SE, (°C × days)−1a LTT ± SE, °C
Early cleavages − 0.2269 ± 0.02268 0.01479 ± 0.00087 15.3 ± 2.2
Late cleavages and germ band formation − 0.0692 ± 0.01565 0.00608 ± 0.00060 11.4 ± 2.6
Germ band extension − 0.2075 ± 0.02759 0.01245 ± 0.00106 16.7 ± 2.3
Germ band retraction − 0.0495 ± 0.00561 0.00340 ± 0.00022 14.6 ± 2.2
Dorsal closure − 0.0382 ± 0.00336 0.00281 ± 0.00013 13.6 ± 2.2
Hatching − 0.1220 ± 0.01736 0.00776 ± 0.00067 15.7 ± 2.3
Total embryonic developmentb − 0.0095 ± 0.00080 0.00067 ± 0.00003 14.2 ± 2.2
Boring into the seed − 0.0335 ± 0.00288 0.00231 ± 0.00011 14.5 ± 2.2
Larval feeding and pupation − 0.0793 ± 0.00199 0.00527 ± 0.00009 15.1 ± 0.4
Pupal stage − 0.1607 ± 0.00478 0.01295 ± 0.00023 12.4 ± 0.6
  1. aRegression parameters with their standard errors were determined with ordinary linear regression (one observation per temperature, Fig. 2), except for the larval feeding and pupal periods where generalized least-squares models were fitted under restricted maximum likelihood to the entire datasets of individual developmental rates (Fig. 3). bIncludes all of the foregoing as well as final morphogenesis and sclerotization, the thermal responses of which were found to be nonlinear