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Table 1 Phenology of the stages of the annual cycle of female long-tailed ducks breeding on Kolguev Island, derived from one year of geolocator data between Summer 2017 and Summer 2018

From: Year-round spatiotemporal distribution pattern of a threatened sea duck species breeding on Kolguev Island, south-eastern Barents Sea

Characteristic of life stage event Mean ± SD Range n
Longitude late breeding stage 2017 49 ± 1° E 47–50° E 19
Timeframe post-moult stage
 Start 12 Sep. ± 11 days 29 Aug.–07 Oct. 19
 End 15 Oct. ± 9 days 28 Sep.–01 Nov. 19
Duration post-moult stage 33 ± 10 days 19–50 days 19
Longitude post-moult stage 49 ± 4° E 37–56° E 19
Duration autumn migration 3 ± 3 days 0–11 days 19
Estimated distance autumn migration 1247 ± 320 km 519–1880 km 19
Timeframe wintering stage
 Start 17 Oct. ± 7 days 02 Oct.–01 Nov. 19
 End 17 May ± 5 days 10 May–02 June 17
Duration wintering stage 212 ± 3 days 197–229 days 17
Longitude wintering stage 21 ± 4° E 15–35° E 19
Latitude wintering stage 59 ± 2° N 56–66° N 19
Duration spring migrationa 2 ± 2 days 1–9 days 17
Estimated distance spring migrationa 1273 ± 307 km 549–1713 km 15
Timeframe pre-breeding stage
 Starta 20 May ± 5 days 14 May–03 June 17
 End 12 June ± 9 days 01 June–02 July 17
Duration pre-breeding stagea 23 ± 7 days 13–34 days 17
Longitude pre-breeding stagea 46 ± 6° E 33–55° E 17
Longitude early breeding stage 2018a 46 ± 3° E 37–50° E 17
Duration breeding stage (estimated) 91 ± 13 days 68–120 days 17
  1. The estimates of migration distance are based on locations, modelled with probGLS
  2. aLongitudes and separation of life stages estimated from light curves of 24 h daylight