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Table 3 Model-averaged predictive models for effect of each parameter on Hb levels: model-averaged fixed effects parameter estimates for: (a) total infections, (b) Leucocytozoon, (c) Haemoproteus, (d) Plasmodium, and (e) mixed infections with relative importance (RI) of each parameter

From: Do avian blood parasites influence hypoxia physiology in a high elevation environment?

Parameter Estimate (β) SE Z-value P value Confidence interval RI
(a) Total infections (n = 257)
 (Intercept) 17.20 0.95 18.07 <0.0001 (15.34, 19.07) NA
 Intensity − 0.22 0.12 1.75 0.07 (− 0.47, 0.02) 1.00
 Breed (1 = breeding season) − 0.70 0.49 1.42 0.15 (− 1.66, 0.26) 1.00
 Elevation_medium 0.35 0.23 1.53 0.12 (− 0.09, 0.80) 1.00
 Elevation_high 0.96 0.32 3.00 0.001 (0.33, 1.59) 1.00
 EM (1 = elevational migrant) 1.52 0.77 1.96 0.04 (0.007, 3.05) 1.00
 Breed: intensity 0.36 0.17 2.11 0.03 (0.02, 0.69) 1.00
 EM: intensity − 0.09 0.17 0.51 0.60 (− 0.43, 0.25) 0.28
(b) Leucocytozoon (L) (n = 229)
 (Intercept) 18.71 1.05 17.70 <0.0001 (16.64, 20.78) NA
 L_intensity − 0.25 0.11 2.17 0.02 (− 0.48, − 0.02) 0.81
 Breed (1 = breeding season) − 0.38 0.60 0.64 0.52 (− 1.58, 0.80) 0.81
 Elevation_medium 0.31 0.24 1.26 0.20 (− 1.72, 0.79) 1.00
 Elevation_high 1.07 0.35 3.05 0.001 (0.38, 1.76) 1.00
 EM (1 = elevational migrant) − 1.02 0.65 1.56 0.11 (− 2.31, 0.26) 0.81
 Breed: L_intensity 0.32 0.18 1.76 0.07 (− 0.03, 0.69) 0.49
(c) Haemoproteus (H) (n = 59)
 (Intercept) 17.42 1.98 8.72 <0.0001 (13.52, 21.31) NA
 H_intensity − 0.03 0.47 0.08 0.93 (− 0.96, 0.88) 0.73
 EM (1 = elevational migrant) 3.36 1.88 1.78 0.07 (− 0.32, 7.05) 0.50
 EM: H_intensity − 0.83 0.43 1.90 0.05 (− 1.68, 0.02) 0.38
 Breed (1 = breeding season) − 0.53 1.37 0.39 0.69 (− 3.22, 2.15) 0.36
 Breed: H_intensity 0.53 0.36 1.46 0.14 (− 0.17, 1.24) 0.22
(d) Plasmodium (P) (n = 18)
 (Intercept) 17.33 0.48 35.51 <0.0001 (16.37, 18.28) NA
 EM (1 = elevational migrant) 2.47 0.60 4.10 0.0001 (1.29, 3.65) 0.73
 Breed (1 = breeding season) 0.98 0.52 1.88 0.05 (− 0.03, 2.00) 0.27
(e) Mixed infectionsa (n = 42)
 Intensity − 0.54 0.19 − 2.78 0.005   
  1. aParameter estimate based on the best model