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Table 2 Linear mixed model to test the influence of elevation, migratory status (elevational migrant versus resident) and season (breeding versus non-breeding; nonbr) as fixed effects on avian haemosporidian intensity after controlling for host taxonomy

From: Do avian blood parasites influence hypoxia physiology in a high elevation environment?

  β SE df t value P
Total infection intensity (n = 257, 18 species)
 (Intercept) 2.60 0.21 28.15 12.15 0.0001
 Elevation_medium − 0.44 0.29 242.65 − 1.48 0.14
 Elevation_high − 0.76 0.26 205.26 − 2.89 0.001
 Season (non-breeding) 0.12 0.19 237.21 0.62 0.53
 Status (resident) − 0.45 0.24 12.95 − 1.84 0.08
 elev_med:season_nonbr 0.78 0.33 247.76 2.37 0.01
 elev_high:season_nonbr 1.00 1.09 243.56 0.91 0.35
 elev_med:status_resident 0.34 0.38 214.28 0.90 0.36
 elev_high:status_resident 0.39 0.44 243.43 0.88 0.37
Leucocytozoon intensity (n = 229, 17 species)
 (Intercept) 2.57 0.24 22.35 10.49 0.0001
 Elevation_medium − 0.44 0.31 219.63 − 1.40 0.16
 Elevation_high − 0.79 0.28 197.27 − 2.77 0.001
 Season (non-breeding) 0.10 0.20 217.56 0.50 0.61
 Status (resident) − 0.39 0.29 11.27 − 1.34 0.20
 elev_med:season_nonbr 0.76 0.35 219.76 2.18 0.01
 elev_high:season_nonbr 1.03 1.09 212.50 0.94 0.34
 elev_med:status_resident 0.11 0.41 204.50 0.27 0.78
 elev_high:status_resident 0.11 0.50 218.69 0.22 0.82
Haemoproteus intensity (n = 59, 9 species)
 (Intercept) 1.82 0.53 22.48 3.42 0.001
 Season (non-breeding) 0.21 0.32 53.37 0.66 0.50
 Status (resident) − 0.93 0.76 14.68 − 1.22 0.23
 Elevation_medium 0.63 0.33 55.36 1.88 0.06
 Elevation_high − 0.06 0.42 53.15 − 0.15 0.87
Plasmodium intensity (n = 18, 9 species)
 (Intercept) 2.50 0.68 5.80 3.68 0.01
 Season (non-breeding) 0.38 0.51 12.98 0.75 0.46
 Status (resident) − 0.78 0.80 6.20 − 0.97 0.36
 Elevation_medium 1.11 1.25 10.30 0.88 0.39
 Elevation_high − 1.00 0.96 5.80 − 1.03 0.34
Mixed infection intensity (n = 42, 8 species)
 (Intercept) 3.07 0.37 37 8.14 0.0001
 Season (non-breeding) 0.42 0.39 37 1.07 0.28
 Status (resident) − 1.00 0.57 37 − 1.74 0.08
 Elevation_medium 0.43 0.37 37 1.16 0.25
 Elevation_high − 0.21 0.55 37 − 0.39 0.69
  1. Significant values are in italics