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Table 1 Annual percentage of feeding records on different food items from each plant species among the four Bale monkey groups

From: Dietary flexibility of Bale monkeys (Chlorocebus djamdjamensis) in southern Ethiopia: effects of habitat degradation and life in fragments

Family Percentage of feeding records for each food item
Species consumed Growth form BYL NBYL SH FL FR ST PT S IN OS Total
Continuous A
 Poaceae Arundinaria alpina Bamboo 57.69 19.66 2.02 79.37
 Rubiaceae Galiniera saxifraga Tree 0.15 7.38 7.53
 Sterculiaceae Dombeya torrida Tree 5.96 5.96
 Asteraceae Mikaniopsis clematoides Liana 2.37 0.06 2.43
 Urticaceae Urera hypselodendron Liana 0.03 0.85 0.89
 Poaceae Bothriochloa radicans Graminoid 0.72 0.06 0.78
 Vitaceae Cypostemma adenocaule Liana 0.20 0.20
 Rubiaceae Galium spurium Forb 0.16 0.16
 Rosaceae Rubus apetalus Shrub 0.03 0.06 0.03 0.12
 Asclepiadaceae Oxystelma bornouense Liana 0.06 0.06
 Sapindaceae Allophylus macrobotrys Tree 0.06 0.06
 Acanthaceae Acanthopale pubescens Forb 0.03 0.03
  Insects   2.42 2.42
 Total    57.69 3.76 19.66 5.96 7.50 0.88 2.42 2.14 100.00
Continuous B
 Poaceae Arundinaria alpina Bamboo 64.20 17.59 1.26 83.05
 Rubiaceae Galiniera saxifraga Tree 0.19 0.03 5.36 5.58
 Sterculiaceae Dombeya torrida Tree 4.51 4.51
 Asteraceae Mikaniopsis clematoides Liana 2.16 2.16
 Urticaceae Urera hypselodendron Liana 0.26 1.74 2.00
 Poaceae Bothriochloa radicans Graminoid 0.63 0.05 0.68
 Vitaceae Cypostemma adenocaule Liana 0.43 0.43
 Acanthaceae Acanthopale pubescens Forb 0.08 0.08
  Insects   1.50 1.50
 Total    64.20 3.76 17.59 4.54 5.36 1.74 1.50 1.31 100.00
Patchy fragment
 Poaceae Arundinaria alpina Bamboo 15.70 13.34 1.14 30.18
 Apiaceae Centellia asiatica Forb 12.76 12.76
 Rubiaceae Galiniera saxifraga Tree 0.05 7.35 7.39
 Rosaceae Rubus apetalus Shrub 0.04 6.08 0.82 6.94
 Poaceae Cynodon dactylon Graminoid 3.85 0.86 4.71
 Fabaceae Trifolium tembense Forb 4.16 4.16
 Rubiaceae Canthium oligocarpum Tree 0.17 0.23 3.49 0.03 3.91
 Poaceae Hordeum vulgare a Graminoid 0.17 3.44 3.61
 Poaceae Poa annua Graminoid 0.96 2.28 3.25
 Myrsinaceae Maesa lanceolata Tree 2.74 0.36 3.10
 Aquifo liaceae Ilex mitis Tree 0.48 0.43 0.22 1.02 2.15
 Musaceae Ensete ventricosum a Forb 0.09 1.00 0.87 1.96
 Papilionaceae Erythrina brucei Tree 0.32 0.68 0.10 0.02 1.11
 Poaceae Zea mays a Graminoid 1.05 0.05 1.09
 Apiaceae Agrocharis melanantha Forb 0.98 0.98
 Asteraceae Carduus schimperi Forb 0.33 0.02 0.51 0.85
 Urticaceae Urera hypselodendron Liana 0.19 0.59 0.78
 Asteraceae Bothriocline schimperi Shrub 0.62 0.62
 Araceae Arisaema schimperianum Forb 0.12 0.40 0.52
 Poaceae Pennisetum thunbergii Graminoid 0.40 0.40
 Poaceae Bothriochloa radicans Graminoid 0.37 0.37
 Caryophyllaceae Drymaria cordata Forb 0.33 0.02 0.35
 Amaryllidaceae Allium sp. Graminoid 0.22 0.05 0.27
 Polygonaceae Rumex nepalensis Forb 0.26 0.26
 Fabaceae Trifolium substerraneum Forb 0.23 0.23
 Solanaceae Solanum tuberosum a Forb 0.20 0.02 0.22
 Poaceae Deschampsia caespitosa Graminoid 0.21 0.21
 Rosaceae Hagenia abyssinica Tree 0.19 0.19
 Oleaceae Jasminum abyssinicum Liana 0.08 0.10 0.18
 Casuarinaceae Casuarina equisetifolia Tree 0.15 0.15
 Myrsinaceae Embelia schimperi Liana 0.03 0.09 0.02 0.14
 Cucurbitaceae Lagenaria abyssinica Liana 0.14 0.14
 Balsaminaceae Impatiens hochstetteri Forb 0.12 0.12
 Poaceae Avena fatua Graminoid 0.11 0.11
 Rubiaceae Galium spurium Forb 0.10 0.10
 Cupressaceae Juniperus procera Tree 0.09 0.09
 Agaricaceae Mushroom Fungi 0.09 0.09
 Poaceae Snowdenia polystacha Graminoid 0.09 0.09
 Asclepiadaceae Oxystelma bornouense Liana 0.08 0.08
 Asteraceae Vernonia sp. Shrub 0.06 0.06
 Compositae Lactuca glandulifera Liana 0.06 0.06
 Lamiaceae Pycnostachys eminii Shrub 0.06 0.06
 Poaceae Cyperus rigidifolius Graminoid 0.05 0.05
 Asteraceae Carduus leptacanthus Forb 0.04 0.04
 Poaceae Eleusine floccifolia Graminoid 0.04 0.04
 Lamiaceae Plectranthus alpinus Forb 0.02 0.02
 Asphodelaceae Kniphofia sp. Forb 0.02 0.02
 Lamiaceae Plectranthus garckeanus Forb 0.02 0.02
  Unidentified Grass Graminoid 1.63 1.63
  Unidentified Herb Forb 0.85 0.85
  Insects   3.34 3.34
 Total    15.70 29.19 14.34 1.00 21.58 7.15 0.29 6.08 3.34 1.32 100.00
Hilltop fragment
 Poaceae Bothriochloa radicans Graminoid 15.27 15.27
 Rubiaceae Galiniera saxifraga Tree 11.73 0.05 11.77
 Rosaceae Rubus apetalus Shrub 7.47 1.95 9.41
 Rosaceae Hagenia abyssinica Tree 8.44 8.44
 Asteraceae Bothriocline schimperi Shrub 8.06 8.06
 Apiaceae Centellia asiatica Forb 7.92 7.92
 Aquifoliaceae Ilex mitis Tree 2.28 3.51 5.79
 Apiaceae Haplosciadium abyssinicum Forb 3.52 3.52
 Urticaceae Urera hypselodendron Liana 0.71 1.69 2.40
 Poaceae Arundinaria alpina Bamboo 1.34 0.27 1.61
 Commelinaceae Commelina sp. Forb 0.31 1.11 1.42
 Fabaceae Trifolium tembense Forb 1.08 1.08
 Asteraceae Crassocephalum macropappus Forb 0.79 0.21 1.00
 Cupressaceae Juniperus procera Tree 1.00 1.00
 Lamiaceae Plectranthus alpinus Forb 0.22 0.07 0.59 0.88
 Poaceae Poa annua Graminoid 0.19 0.50 0.69
 Urticaceae Pilea rivularis Forb 0.17 0.33 0.50
 Poaceae Cynodon dactylon Graminoid 0.49 0.49
 Caryophyllaceae Drymaria cordata Forb 0.29 0.11 0.39
 Balsaminaceae Impatiens hochstetteri Forb 0.04 0.34 0.38
 Asteraceae Mikaniopsis clematoides Liana 0.11 0.22 0.33
  Keshansho Graminoid 0.33 0.33
 Asteraceae Carduus schimperi Forb 0.11 0.09 0.20
 Asteraceae Vernonia rueppellii Shrub 0.02 0.11 0.13
 Solanaceae Discopodium penninervium Tree 0.04 0.09 0.13
 Papilionaceae Erythrina brucei Tree 0.03 0.10 0.12
 Rosaceae Alchemilla fischeri Forb 0.12 0.12
 Poaceae Zea mays a Graminoid 0.11 0.11
 Olaeaceae Jasminum abyssinicum Liana 0.11 0.11
 Asteraceae Echinops sp. Forb 0.09 0.09
 Urticaceae Girardinia bullosa Forb 0.09 0.09
 Capparaceae Ritchiea albersii Tree 0.05 0.05
 Urticaceae Urtica simensis Forb 0.04 0.04
 Agaricaceae Agaricaceae sp. Fungi 0.03 0.03
 Crassulaceae Crassula alsinoides Forb 0.02 0.02
  Sheshako Shrub 0.02 0.02
  Unidentified Grass Graminoid 1.46 1.46
  Unidentified Herb Forb 0.88 0.88
  Insects   13.68 13.68
 Total    1.34 33.49 0.27 2.59 21.02 18.50 8.59 0.50 13.68 0.03 100.00
  1. aCultivated food species