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Table 1 The effect of above- and belowground herbivory treatments on C and N concentration (percentage) and their ratios in leaves and roots of the tomato plants

From: Sequential above- and belowground herbivory modifies plant responses depending on herbivore identity

Tissue Concentration (Mean ± SE; n = 15)
Ctrl Nem Aph Aph + Nem Spo Spo + Nem
Leaf
C 38.99 ± 0.36a 38.60 ± 0.38a 38.66 ± 0.43a 38.37 ± 0.5a 38.61 ± 0.38a 38.56 ± 0.35a
N 2.89 ± 0.08b 2.92 ± 0.10b 2.98 ± 0.08ab 2.75 ± 0.04b 3.03 ± 0.09ab 3.27 ± 0.08a
C/N 13.63 ± 0.41a 13.41 ± 0.41a 13.11 ± 0.38ab 14.00 ± 0.25a 12.94 ± 0.41ab 11.88 ± 0.29b
Root
C 41.86 ± 0.56ab 43.37 ± 0.42a 41.06 ± 0.69b 43.05 ± 0.43ab 37.94 ± 0.51c 42.64 ± 0.56ab
N 2.46 ± 0.08b 3.02 ± 0.04a 2.61 ± 0.07b 2.68 ± 0.06b 2.53 ± 0.06b 3.08 ± 0.05a
C/N 17.18 ± 0.48a 14.38 ± 0.21cd 15.81 ± 0.36abc 16.15 ± 0.37ab 15.1 ± 0.39bcd 13.88 ± 0.21d
  ANOVA results
AGH BGH AGH:BGH
F P F P F P
Leaf
C 0.267 0.766 0.542 0.464 0.094 0.911
N 7.127 0.001 0.047 0.8281 4.279 0.017
C/N 6.418 0.003 0.194 0.6606 3.56 0.033
Root
C 9.706 <0.001 38.31 <0.001 4.751 0.011
N 3.28 0.042 61.39 <0.001 10.45 <0.001
C/N 12.58 <0.001 20.04 <0.001 9.95 <0.001
  1. Treatments: Ctrl: control (no herbivory), Nem nematode only, Aph aphids only, Aph + Nem aphids followed by nematodes, Spo S. exigua larvae only, Spo + Nem S. exigua larvae followed by nematodes. AGH and BGH stand for above- and belowground herbivory respectively. (AGH. df: 2, 84; BGH. df: 1, 84; AGH:BGH. df: 2, 84). Italic fonts indicate the significant effects (P < 0.05) of the treatments. Mean ± SE followed by different letters are significantly different from each other (Tukey HSD test: P < 0.05)