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Table 5 Factors affecting urban density of bird species in six European cities

From: Commonness and ecology, but not bigger brains, predict urban living in birds

City Surroundings Body mass Brain mass
Livorno, Italy (N = 20 species)    
City centre <0.0001 0.50* 0.21
Suburbs <0.0001 0.73* 0.24
Pisa, Italy (N = 20 species)    
City centre < 0.0001 0.70* 0.67
Suburbs < 0.0001 0.86* 0.26
Madrid, Spain (N = 46 species)    
City centre 0.42 0.30 0.28
Suburbs 0.003 0.60 0.51
Other urban areas 0.016 0.56 0.46
Angers, France (N = 43 species)    
City centre < 0.0001 0.34 0.81
Suburbs < 0.0001 0.27 0.22
Rennes, France (N = 33 species)    
City centre < 0.0001 0.50 0.55
Suburbs < 0.0001 0.79 0.83
Heinola, Finland (N = 48 species)    
City centre 0.0005 0.48 0.63
Suburbs < 0.0001 0.54 0.72
Other urban areas < 0.0001 0.35 0.21
  1. Summary of results of analyses of interspecific associations (controlling for phylogeny) between species density in urban areas in six European cities and the predictor variables density outside the city and relative brain mass (i.e. ln-transformed body mass and brain mass; * indicates the use of residual body mass from sequential regression). For each city there were 2–3 different urban zones. The table shows P-values of predictor variables. Significant values (P < 0.05) are in bold. See Additional file 1: Tables S12-17 for full output of analyses.