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Table 2 Factors affecting urban commonness of bird species in Oslo, with subset of urban sites from the highly urbanized inner city centre only

From: Commonness and ecology, but not bigger brains, predict urban living in birds

Predictor df F P
Frequency in surrounding sites 1 101.78 <0.0001
Habitat type 3 19.71 <0.0001
Migration 1 1.56 0.22
Nest location 3 7.04 0.0003
Brain mass 1 0.10 0.75
Residual body mass 1 5.89 0.018
  1. Results from ANCOVA (summarized with a sequential sum of squares) showing associations between the frequency of occurrence of bird species (N = 90) in urban sites (N = 22) in Oslo and six predictor variables (frequency of occurrence in surrounding sites, habitat type, migration, nest site and relative brain mass [i.e. ln-transformed brain mass and residual body mass]). Significant values (P < 0.05) are in bold. See Additional file 1: Table S4 for full results from summarization of PGLS model.