Principal component analyses of wolves ( Canis lupus ) from the central coast of British Columbia, Canada showing geographic distribution of individuals. a) Individual (n = 116) profiles based on ≥ 10 microsatellite loci labelled according to mainland (MA) and island (IS) sample locations. b) Individual profiles (n = 116) based on ≥ 10 microsatellite loci labeled according to membership in five wolf family groups: Upper Roscoe (UR) and Lower Roscoe (LR) on the mainland, and Yeo-Coldwell (YC), Cunningham-Chatfield (CC), and Denny-Campbell (DC) islands. Note that the label for DC (green colour) is overlapped by UR (red colour). c) A subsample of individual profiles (n = 18) with duplicated genotypes based on ≥ 5 loci labelled according to mainland and island sample locations. d) Individual profiles (n = 18) with duplicated genotypes based on ≥ 5 loci labelled according to membership in four wolf family groups LR, YC, CC, and DC (none from UR).