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Table 4 Leaf C, N and C:N ratios in response to earthworms (−Ew…no earthworms, +Ew…earthworm addition) and plant community composition (low diversity…3 spp.; high diversity…12 spp.)

From: Herbivory of an invasive slug is affected by earthworms and the composition of plant communities

Parameter/ Low plant diversity High plant diversity
Funct. group -Ew +Ew -Ew +Ew
Ctot     
A. elatius 41.6 ± 0.3a 40.5 ± 0.4a 40.8 ± 0.5a 39.7 ± 1.0a
P. vulgaris 38.4 ± 1.0a 38.5 ± 0.5a 38.6 ± 0.1a 38.5 ± 0.8a
T. pratense 40.9 ± 0.3a 40.9 ± 0.3a 40.6 ± 0.3a 41.3 ± 0.4a
Ntot     
A. elatius 2.9 ± 0.2b 3.5 ± 0.3a 2.8 ± 0.2b 3.4 ± 0.3a
P. vulgaris 2.7 ± 0.1b 3.1 ± 0.1a 2.9 ± 0.1b 3.4 ± 0.3a
T. pratense 3.0 ± 0.1ab 3.1 ± 0.2ab 2.8 ± 0.1c 3.3 ± 0.1a
C:N ratio     
A. elatius 15.9 ± 1.5a 12.3 ± 1.1b 15.3 ± 1.2a 12.7 ± 1.3b
P. vulgaris 14.3 ± 0.7a 12.8 ± 0.5b 13.9 ± 0.6a 11.5 ± 1.2b
T. pratense 13.9 ± 0.5a 13.5 ± 0.4a 14.7 ± 0.6a 12.7 ± 0.5b
  1. Different letters after values refer to significant differences within a species (Tukey-Tests, p < 0.05). Means ± SE, n = 6.