Seedling planting and ecological forest restoration. Planting late-successional tree species under early-successional shrubs can be an effective means of restoring forests under high abiotic stress. Tree planting under facilitating nurse shrubs is a typical example of the community approach to forest restoration. This figure shows the planting of an African wild olive seedling (Olea europaea ssp. cuspidata) under the canopy of Euclea racemosa rather than in the open space between the present shrubs. See  for details. Tsegaye Gebremariam, Raf Aerts and Bisrat Haile agreed to be photographed in the field.