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Table 3 Descriptive statistics for the eight groups of South American equids that were compared.

From: Ancient feeding ecology inferred from stable isotopic evidence from fossil horses in South America over the past 3 Ma

Groups n Mean δ13C SD Range n Mean δ18O SD Range
   (‰)PDB (‰) (‰)   (‰)V-SMOW (‰) (‰)
A 31 -10.1 1.39 -12.9 to -6.6 26 28.3 2.20 24.2 to 31.5
B 68 -5.2 4.83 -11.66 to 9.21 68 28.5 3.32 21.7 to 34.9
C 17 -10.2 1.39 -12.22 to -8.08 17 29.0 2.17 24.2 to 31.5
D 14 -10.0 1.44 -12.9 to -6.6 9 27.0 1.74 25.3 to 29.8
E 52 -5.5 5.43 -11.66 to 9.21 50 29.4 3.17 21.7 to 34.9
F 16 -4.3 1.61 -8.31 to -2.3 16 25.3 1.28 23.5 to 28.3
G 43 -5.3 5.93 -11.66 to 9.21 41 30.7 1.48 27 to 34.9
H 25 -5.1 1.85 -9.86 to -2.3 25 24.6 1.51 21.7 to 28.3
I 12 -9.8 1.34 -12.22 to -6.6 8 25.8 1.30 25.8 to28.7
J 19 -10.3 1.42 -8.08 to -12.90 17 29.7 1.00 29.7 to 31.5
  1. A: all Hippidion specimens; B: all Equus (Amerhippus) specimens; C: Hippidion from the Late Pleistocene; D: Hippidion from the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene; E: Equus (Amerhippus) from the Late Pleistocene; F: Equus (Amerhippus) from the Middle Pleistocene; G: Equus (Amerhippus) from the plains landscape; H: Equus (Amerhippus) from the mountain corridor; I: Hippidion from the plains landscape and J: Hippidion from the mountain corridor. n: number of samples. SD: standard deviation.