Effects of willow hybridisation and simulated browsing on the development and survival of the leaf beetle Phratora vitellinae
© Hallgren; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2003
Received: 03 February 2003
Accepted: 24 June 2003
Published: 24 June 2003
Interspecific hybridisation is common between many plant species and causes rapid changes in a variety of plant characters. This may pose problems for herbivores because changes in recognition characters may be poorly correlated with changes in quality characters. Many studies have examined different systems of hybrids and herbivores in attempts to understand the role of hybridisation in the evolution of plant resistance. The results from different systems are variable. Studies of hybrids between Salix caprea (L., Salicaceae) and S. repens show that they are intermediate between the two parental species in most resistence characters. However, a plants herbivore resistence depends also on its biotic and abiotic environment. Important biotic factors that may influence plant growth and plant chemistry include the interactions between different herbivores that occur through their exploitation of common host plants. Although the effects on plants of previous herbivory are likely to be strongly affected by environmental conditions, they are also species-specific. Damage may therefore have different effects on hybrids than on their parental species, and this could influence the performance of herbivores on pure and hybrid species of plants. To evaluate the effects of hybridisation on insect performance, the development and survival rates of Phratora vitellinae (L. 1758, Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) larvae on pure S. repens, pure S. caprea and Fl hybrids of the two species was monitored. Further, to examine the effect of herbivorous mammals on the performance of the larvae, plants were damaged to simulate winter foraging by voles or spring leaf stripping by moose.
The results show that development rates were highest on S. repens and equally low on S. caprea and the Fl hybrid. In addition, development of the plants treated to simulate mammalian herbivore damage was slower than that of corresponding controls.
The results of this experiment suggest that P. vitellinae has a higher development rate, and thus probably higher performance, on species with high concentrations of phenolic glucosides. Therefore, it would be of adaptive benefit for P. vitellinae females to have an ovipositional preference for S. repens, compared to S. caprea and intermediate preference for Fl hybrids. The faster development observed on S. repens supports the hypothesis that P. vitellinae obtains additional adaptive benefits from phenolic glucosides beyond protection against predators. Therefore, it is important to consider further factors, such as damage caused by other herbivores, when studying this hybrid complex.
To understand the distribution of herbivore populations on different plants we need to consider both host selection and offspring performance on potential hosts . The more similar plants are in recognition characters, and the more variable they are in quality, the more important it is for a herbivore to make appropriate host choices [2–4]. Herbivores' foraging and oviposition decisions are especially challenging when host plant species hybridise with non-host species. It may thus be instructive, especially from an evolutionary perspective, to consider not only distribution and host selection on hybrids but also offspring performance on hybrids, pure hosts and non-hosts that are expected to differ in quality .
Interspecific hybridisation is common between many plant species  and causes rapid changes in a variety of plant characters [7–10]. This may pose problems for some herbivores because changes in recognition characters may be poorly correlated with changes in quality characters. Many studies have examined different systems of hybrids and herbivores in attempts to understand the role of hybridisation in the evolution of plant resistance [7, 11, 12]. However, fewer studies have considered the performance of herbivore offspring on hybrid plants [1, 13–16].
The amount of resources allocated by a plant to herbivore defence depends on its biotic and abiotic environment, as well as its genotype. Important biotic factors that may influence plant growth and plant chemistry include the interactions between different herbivores that occur through their exploitation of common host plants [17–21]. Although the effects on plants of previous herbivory are likely to be strongly affected by environmental conditions, such as nutrient and water availability, they are also species-specific . Damage may therefore have different effects on hybrids than on their parental species, and this could influence the performance of herbivores on pure and hybrid species of plants.
Willows are extensively used by many different herbivores , and willow species are known to hybridise frequently with other willows . However, they can be divided into two different groups based on their leaf chemistry: one with high levels of phenolic glucosides and low levels of condensed tannins and one in which this relationship is reversed [24, 25]. Both phenolic glucosides and condensed tannins are secondary chemicals that are known to affect herbivores [22, 25, 26]. Several different kinds of leaf beetle utilise willows as host species, some of which are adapted to live on willows that are low in phenolic glucosides, while others are adapted to species with high concentrations of these compounds [22, 27, 25]. Phratora vitellinae (L. 1758; Coleoptera: CHRYSOMELIDAE Lat. 1802; insect nomenclature from ) is a leaf beetle that is oligophagous on willow species with high concentrations of phenolic glucosides [29, 22, 25, 27]. In the area where the experiments were performed P. vitellinae is most often observed on S. myrsinifolia (L.) .
In the study reported here I examined the development and foraging of P. vitellinae larvae on pure Salix repens, pure S. caprea, and Fl hybrids between them. From previous studies it is known that S. repens has high concentrations of phenolic glucosides, while S. caprea has at most low concentrations of these compounds [24, 31], and the hybrids are usually intermediate between the parental species in this respect . To study the effect of other herbivores on insect herbivores I also simulated winter foraging by voles and leaf stripping by mammalian herbivores (moose). More specifically, I addressed the following questions:
1. Do the survival and developmental rates of P. vitellinae larvae growing on S. repens, S. caprea and Fl hybrids differ?
2. Does the amount of leaf area consumed by P. vitellinae larvae differ between S. repens, S. caprea and Fl hybrids?
3. Does simulated herbivory influence the survival and development of P. vitellinae?
4. Does simulated herbivory influence the amount of leaf area consumed by P. vitellinae larvae?
Sequential analyses of deviance for the logistic regression analyses of development. The data show there were significant effects of plant category and treatment, and a close to significant interaction between plant category and treatment.
Sequential analyses of deviance for the logistic regression analyses of survival. The data show there were no significant effects of plant category, treatment or the interaction between plant category and treatment.
Development of P. vitellinae larvae is equally slow on Fl hybrid plants as on the non-salicylate parental species, S. caprea, but significantly faster on pure S. repens. Since the time spent as larvae affects several factors that, in turn, influence the risk of mortality (e.g. predation and the scope for choosing over-wintering sites), I believe that it is safe to argue that rapid development from egg to adult is indicative of high performance. The results are consistent with reports that the insect's preference for salicylic plants is of adaptive benefit [25, 27]. It has been suggested that the preference of P. vitellinae for phenolic glucosides may be related to its ability to synthesise salicylaldehydes from phenolic glucosides for its own defence, although several studies have shown that other factors may be involved. P. vitellinae larvae convert salicyl glucosides from the plants they feed on into salicylaldehydes , which are excreted onto their backs when they are disturbed and are believed to act as deterrents against generalist predators [32, 25]. However, it has also been shown that even in the absence of predators, survival and development rates tend to be higher when the insects feed on plants with high amounts of phenolic glucosides [25, 27]. It has been suggested that this may be due to P. vitellinae metabolising the sugar from the sequestered phenolic glucosides . In the present study I found no difference in survival between plant categories, but significant differences in the development time to the pupal stage.
In a previous study Fl hybrids proved to be intermediate between parental species in phenolic glucoside concentration . If the phenolic glucoside concentration really does influence larval performance, more than any other character, the results indicate that P. vitellinae may require leaves with more than a specific threshold concentration to provide optimal nutrition. It is also interesting to note that although performance was greater on S. repens, a large proportion of the larvae on S. caprea and the Fl hybrid were still developing when I terminated the experiment. This shows that under enemy-free conditions, phenolic glucosides are not essential dietary components for P. vitellinae.
It has been suggested that P. vitellinae displays a compensatory feeding behaviour, eating more when forced to feed on leaves with low levels of phenolic glucosides . Nevertheless, although there were differences in developmental stage between plant categories when the experiments were terminated, there were no differences in the leaf area consumed. This indicates that the larvae may need to forage less on S. repens than on the Fl hybrid or S. caprea to reach the same developmental stage. However, although phenolic glucosides are clearly important to these beetles, other plant characters that may differ between pure and hybrid individuals may also be important . For instance, other studies of P. vitellinae have shown that leaf trichomes have a clear effect on both larval performance and female host selection [33, 34]. However, all plant types tested in this study, both hybrids and the pure species, have hairs on their leaf surfaces, irrespective of whether their phenolic glucoside concentrations are low or high, so the differences observed in this case are unlikely to be due to the presence or absence of trichomes. Herbivore development is not influenced solely by secondary metabolites in the food plants, it is also clearly dependent on the amount of primary nutrients they contain, especially nitrogen and carbohydrates [35, 36]. Even though the plants in the present study were treated equally, they may have differed in primary nutrient contents, and these differences may also have affected the development of P. vitellinae larvae.
For the two plant categories on which larval development was reduced, S. caprea and the Fl hybrid, the simulated leaf stripping, which included removal of the leafs on the terminal shoot and the apical bud, reduced development rates even further. Hence, the plant categories might differ in the way their response to damage affects P. vitellinae larvae. Such differences would not be surprising since the plants are morphologically very different [37, 23]. S. caprea adopts an upright tree habit, and thus has fairly strong apical dominance, while S. repens has a creeping growth pattern and weak apical dominance [37, 23]. The hybrid plants are commonly intermediate in growth pattern between the parental species, although there is also great variation in morphology, and individuals may be more similar to either one of the parental species. The secondary chemistry may be more affected by damage in plants that have strong apical dominance, than in plants with weak apical dominance . This is because source-sink relationships, and thus intra-plant regulatory processes, are affected when apical dominance changes. If the plant has weak apical dominance, damage to a shoot will not change the source-sink structure as much as if the plant has strong apical dominance .
This study shows that there would be adaptive value for P. vitellinae females to show oviposition preference for S. repens, compared to S. caprea and Fl hybrids between S. caprea and S. repens, under the conditions of these experiments. The faster development observed on S. repens supports the hypothesis that P. vitellinae obtains additional adaptive benefits from phenolic glucosides, as shown by Rank et al. , beyond protection for the larvae against predators. It may also be important to consider damage caused by other agents, for example other herbivores, when studying this hybrid complex, as there are indications that plant responses to damage differ between S. repens, S. caprea and the Fl hybrid.
Plant crosses, and the number of individuals used from each cross. Maternal plants are listed in the row headings and the paternal plants in the column headings. S. caprea parents are denoted by C, and S. repens parents by R.
First instar P. vitellinae larvae were collected on July 1 in the field from S. myrsinifolia (L.). On each experimental plant a larva was enclosed on a randomly chosen shoot, with sufficient leaves to support its growth. Larvae for each block were taken from the same wild plant, and thus probably originated from the same clutch. The larvae were left to forage and develop on the plant for 46 days (until August 16), when the first beetles hatched from their pupae. At this point I measured survival, the developmental stage the larvae had attained and the area of consumed leaf. When the experiment was terminated no larvae had eaten all of the enclosed leaves.
I analysed whether there were any differences between plant categories and treatments in the probability of a larva surviving until the termination of the experiment. Among the surviving individuals I analysed the influence of plant category and simulated herbivory treatment on the probability of a P. vitellinae individual reaching pupal or adult stage at the end of the experiment. For both analyses I used logistic regression with plant category, treatment and the interaction between them as factors in the model [39, 40]. To evaluate differences in the consumed leaf area I used two-factorial analyses of variance with plant categories and treatments as independent factors. For all statistical tests I used R version 1.2 .
I thank Joakim Hjältén, and Ola Atlegrim for useful comments on the manuscript. This study was financially supported by grants from the Swedish Research Council for Forest and Agriculture Research awarded to Joakim Hjältén.
- Orians C, Huang C, Wild A, Dorfman K, Zee P, Dao M, Fritz R: Willow hybridization differentially affects preference and performance of herbivourous beetles. Ent Exp Appl. 1997, 83: 285-294. 10.1046/j.1570-7458.1997.00183.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fox C, Lalonde R: Host confusion and the evolution of insect diet breadths. Oikos. 1993, 67: 577-581.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Janz N, Nylin S: The role of female search behaviour in determining host plant range in plant feeding insects: a test of the information processing hypothesis. Proc R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1997, 264: 701-707. 10.1098/rspb.1997.0100.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bernays E: The Value of Being a Resource Specialist: Behavioral Support for a Neural Hypothesis. Am Nat. 1998, 151: 451-464. 10.1086/286132.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hallgren P: Ecological consequences of plant hybridization in willows: Inheritance patterns of secondary compounds and herbivore foraging behaviour. Ph.D. thesis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå. 2002, [http://www.abc.se/~m11032/]Google Scholar
- Arnold M, Bulger M, Burke J, Hempel A, Williams J: Natural hybridization: How low can it go and still be important?. Ecology. 1999, 80: 371-381.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Strauss S: Levels of herbivory and parasitism in host hybrid zones. Trends Ecol Evol. 1994, 9: 209-214. 10.1016/0169-5347(94)90245-3.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moulia C: Parasitism of plant and animal hybrids: are facts and fates the same?. Ecology. 1999, 80: 392-406.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fritz R, Moulia C, Newcombe G: Resistance of hybrid plants and animals to herbivores, pathogenes, and parasites. Annu Rev Ecol Syst. 1999, 30: 565-591. 10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.30.1.565.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Orians C: The effects of hybridization in plants on secondary chemistry: implications for the ecology and evolution of plant-herbivore interactions. Am J Bot. 2000, 87: 1749-1756.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fritz RS: Resistance of hybrid plants to herbivores: genes, environment, or both?. Ecology. 1999, 80: 382-391.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Whitham T, Martinsen G, Floate K, Dungey H, Potts B, Keim P: Plant hybrid zones affect biodiversity: tools for a genetic-based understanding of community structure. Ecology. 1999, 80: 416-428.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hanhimäki S, Senn J, Haukioja E: Performance of insect herbivores on hybridizing trees – the case of the sub-arctic birches. J Anim Ecol. 1994, 63: 163-175.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gange A: Aphid performance in an alder (A1nus.
- Messina F, Richards J, McArthur E: Variable responses of insects to hybrid versus parental sagebrush in common gardens. Oecologia. 1996, 107: 513-521.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Simens DH, Ralston BE, Johnson CD: Alternative seed defense-mechanisms in a palo verde (Fabaceae) hybrid zone – effects on Bruchnid beetle abundance. Ecol Entom. 1994, 19: 381-390.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Danell K, Huss-Danell K: Feeding by insects and hares on birches earlier affected by moose browsing. Oikos. 1985, 44: 75-81.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Honkanen T, Haukioja E: Intra-plant regulation of growth and plant-herbivore interactions. Ecoscience. 1998, 5: 470-479.Google Scholar
- Hjältén J: Willow response to pruning: The effect on plant growth, survival and suceptability to leaf gallers. Ecoscience. 1999, 6: 62-67.Google Scholar
- Price P, Roininen H, Ohgushi T: Comparative plant-herbivore interactions involving willows and three gall-inducing sawfly species in the genous Pontania (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae). Ecoscience. 1999, 6: 41-50.Google Scholar
- Lehtilä K, Haukioja E, Kaitaniemi P, Laine K: Allocation of resources within mountain birch canopy after simulated winter browsing. Oikos. 2000, 90: 160-170.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tahvanainen J, Julkunen-Tiitto R, Kettunen J: Phenolic glycosides govern the food selection pattern of willow feeding leaf beetles. Oecologia. 1985, 67: 52-56.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Skvortsov AK: Willows of Russia and adjacent countries. Taxonomical and geographic revision. Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences Report Series. 1999, University of Joensuu, 39:Google Scholar
- Julkunen-Tiitto R: Distribution of certain phenolics in Salix species (Salicaceae). Ph.D. thesis, University of Joensuu, Joensuu. 1989Google Scholar
- Pasteels J, Rowell-Rahier M: The chemical ecology of herbivory on willows. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh section Biological sciences. 1992, 98: 63-73.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ayres M, Clausen T, MacLean S, Redman A, Reichardt P: Diversity of structure and antiherbivore activity in condensed tannins. Ecology. 1997, 78: 1696-1712.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rank N, Köpf A, Julkunen-Titto R, Tahvanainen J: Host preference and larvae performance of the salycylate-using leaf beetle Phratora vitellinae. Ecology. 1998, 79: 618-631.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gustavsson B: Catalogus Coleopterorum Sueciae. 2002, [http://www.nrm.se/en/catalogus.html.se]Google Scholar
- Pasteels J, Rowell-Rahier M, Braekman J, Daloze D: Chemical defences in leaf beetles and theire larvae: the ecological, evolutionary and taxonomic significance. Biochem Syst Ecol. 1984, 12: 395-406. 10.1016/0305-1978(84)90071-1.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sipura M: Herbivory on willows: abiotic constraints and thophic interactions. Ph.D. thesis, University of Joensuu. 2000Google Scholar
- Hallgren P, Ikonen A, Hjältén J, Roininen H: Inherritance patterns of phenolics in Fl, F2 and back-cross hybrids of willows: implications for herbivore responses to hybrid plants. J Chem Ecol. 2003, 29: 1119-1134. 10.1023/A:1023829506473.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Denno R, Larson S, Olmstead K: Role of enemy-free space and plant quality in host-plant selection by willow beetles. Ecology. 1990, 71: 124-137.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rowell-Rahier M, Pasteels J: The significance of salicin for a Salix-feeder, Phratora (Phyllodecta) vitellinae. In: Procedings 5th international Symposium Insect-Plant Relationsships, Wagenin-gen, Pudoc. 1982, 73-79.Google Scholar
- Soetens P, Rowell-Rahier M, Pasteels J: Influence of phenolglucosides and trichome density on the distribution of insect herbivores on willows. Ent Exp Appl. 1991, 59: 175-187.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schoonhoven L, Jermy T, van Loon J: Insect-plant biology: From physiology to evolution. London, Chapman & Hall. 1998Google Scholar
- Raubenheimer D, Simpson SJ: Integrating nutrition: a geometrical approach. Ent Exp Appl. 1999, 91: 67-82.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lid J, Tande Lid D: Flora of Norway and Sweden (in Norwegian). Det Norska Samlaget. 1994Google Scholar
- Hjältén J: Willow hybrids and herbivory: a test of hypotheses of phytophage response to hybrid plants using the generalist leaf-feeder Lochmea caprea (Chrysomelidae). Oecologia. 1997, 109: 571-574. 10.1007/s004420050118.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Selvin S: Modern applied biostatistical methods using S-plus. Monographs in epidemiology and bio statistics. 1998, Oxford University Press, 28:Google Scholar
- Venables W, Ripley B: Modern applied statistics with S-Plus. New York, Springer-Verlag. 1999Google Scholar
- Venables W, Smith D: An Introduction to R. The R-development core team. 2002, [http://www.r-project.org/]Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article: verbatim copying and redistribution of this article are permitted in all media for any purpose, provided this notice is preserved along with the article's original URL.